stepper motor, also known as step motor or stepping motor
Switched reluctance motors are very large stepping motors with a reduced pole count, and generally are closed-loop commutated.
Brushed DC motors rotate continuously when DC voltage is applied to their terminals. The stepper motor is known by its property of converting a train of input pulses (typically square wave pulses) into a precisely defined increment in the shaft position. Each pulse moves the shaft through a fixed angle.
Stepper motors effectively have multiple "toothed" electromagnets arranged around a central gear-shaped piece of iron. The electromagnets are energized by an external driver circuit or a micro controller. To make the motor shaft turn, first, one electromagnet is given power, which magnetically attracts the gear's teeth. When the gear's teeth are aligned to the first electromagnet, they are slightly offset from the next electromagnet. This means that when the next electromagnet is turned on and the first is turned off, the gear rotates slightly to align with the next one. From there the process is repeated. Each of those rotations is called a "step", with an integer number of steps making a full rotation. In that way, the motor can be turned by a precise angle.
Electromagnets within the same group are all energized together. Because of this, stepper motors with more phases typically have more wires (or leads) to control the motor.
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