If a stepper motor is off, is the shaft locked or does it move freely?

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If a stepper motor is off, is the shaft locked or does it move freely?
1.
The inherent operation of a stepper motor is to lock the rotor (with the shaft) in a given position. A rotation is nothing more than a series of cleverly-controlled locking operations. With no lock active when the motor is “off” (i.e. no current flows through any of its windings), the shaft rotates freely. Even for those built with permanent magnets, although you may feel subtle bumps as the core’s poles traverse the magnets’ fields in large steppers.
2.

There are two types of stepper motors.

One with permanent magnet rotor and one without permanent magnet .

The free rotation of the shaft depends on whether if it is connected to the load or not. If the external force applied(trying to move the shaft) is greater than the inertia of the motor connected to the load ,then the shaft moves in the case of motors without permanent magnetss.

For motors employing permanent magnets , a little more force should be exerted to overcome the residual flux because of the permanent magnets.

Cloudray Stepper Motor Series has set the standard for quality, reliability, and durability in stepping motors. The precision of our Torque Power motors is matched only by the dependability of their performance. All Torque Power motors are bi-directional and totally enclosed with permanently lubricated ball bearings for long-lasting, smooth operation.
Cloudray stepper motor series are widely used in medical instruments, robotics, 3D printers, extruders, laser cutters, engraving machine, textile equipment, packaging machinery, CNC machines, etc. nema 23 bipolar stepper motor for 3D printer and CNC
 
High Torque, High Precision and Long life is Cloudray's core advantages
Low vibration,Low heating, No loss of step
Fast Response,Better Acceleration Performance
Thanks to a robust design they can be selected for the harshest environments. Precise, open-loop, speed and position control can be achieved with the application of full step, half step, or microstepping electronics.
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Higher Resolution,Avoidance of Resonance Regions
Stepping angle is adjustable( rang in 18°±5%), 0.9 °stepper motor's stepping angle is smaller, fineness is higher and positioning is more accurate.Avoiding vibration,runs more smoothly and gets lower noise.
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Sturdy structure, extremely long life
High quality materials including bearings and shaft made in Japan
Robust assembly, high speed range, and exceptional performance in even the harshest environments make Cloudray Stepper Motors the perfect solution for demanding positioning applications.
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Short length and light weight allow them to be used in highly integrated systems
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Cloudray stepper motor factory video
Stepper motor application
Cloudray stepper motor and Stepping Motor Driver are widely used in engraving machine, cutting plotter, textile machine, 3D printer, medical devices,stage lighting equipment, robot, CNC machine, music fountain and other industrial automatic equipment.
nema 23 bipolar stepper motor for 3D printer and CNC
nema 23 bipolar stepper motor for 3D printer and CNC
nema 23 bipolar stepper motor for 3D printer and CNC

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