How it rotates Stepper Motor for CNC Machine or 3D Printer extruder motor

  1. The right electromagnet is energized and becomes a north pole (red) and the left electromagnet becomes a south pole (blue). This pulls the rotor around by one step so a blue tooth on the rotor snaps toward the right electromagnet and a red tooth snaps toward the left electromagnet.
  2. Now the bottom electromagnet becomes a north pole, the top magnet becomes a south pole, and the two horizontal magnets are switched off. Again, the teeth of the rotor are pulled around by one step.
  3. The vertical magnets are now switched off and the horizontal magnets are switched on again, but with the opposite polarity (pattern of magnetism) that they had before. The teeth of the rotor advance by one more step.
  4. Finally, the vertical magnets are switched on again, in the opposite polarity to before, and the horizontal magnets are switched off. The rotor mores around one more step. The whole cycle then repeats.

Remember that a stepper motor isn't really designed to keep spinning around and around: by sending as many or as few impulses to the outer electromagnets as necessary, we can make the rotor turn through a certain number of steps (and, therefore, by a precise angle). We can make it rotate the opposite way by reversing the electric current.

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